A battery pack/module is a set of any number of identical batteries
or individual cells. Its purpose is to provide an integrated powre source
for applications. Lithium ion cells need to be packaged with management circuits before they can be used directly in products. An advantage of a battery pack is the ease with which
it can be swapped into or out of a device. This allows multiple packs
to deliver extended runtimes, freeing up the device for continued use
while charging the removed pack separately. Another advantage is the flexibility
of their design and implementation, allowing the use of cheaper high-production
cells or batteries to be combined into a pack for nearly any application.
They may be configured in a series, parallel or a mixture
of both to deliver the desired voltage, capacity, or power density. Components
of battery packs include the individual cells, and the interconnects which
provide electrical conductivity between them. Rechargeable battery packs
often contain a temperature sensor, which the battery charger uses to
detect the end of charging. Interconnects are also found in batteries
as they are the part which connects each cell, though batteries are most
often only arranged in series strings.
When wiring a pack in parallel there are various methods
and one should take into consideration the balance of the electrical circuit.
Battery regulators are sometimes used to keep the peak voltage of each
individual cell below its maximum value so to allow weaker batteries to
be fully charged, bringing the whole pack back into balance. Active balancing
can also be performed by battery balancer devices which can shuttle energy
from strong batteries to weaker ones in real time for even better balance.
A well-balanced pack lasts longer and delivers better performance so it
is a rather beneficial component of high capacity or expensive packs.
For an inline package, cells are selected and stacked with
solder in between them. The cells are pressed together and a current pulse
generates heat to solder them together and to weld all connections internal
to the cell.
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