Lithium battery is classified into primary lithium battery(nonrechargeable) and secondary lithium battery(rechargeable). Primary lithium batteries have lithium as an anode. These types of batteries are also referred to as lithium-metal batteries. The most common type of lithium cell used in consumer applications is lithium manganese dioxide battery which uses metallic lithium as anode and manganese dioxide as cathode, with a salt of lithium dissolved in an organic solvent.
Another type of lithium cell having a large energy density is the lithium-thionyl chloride battery. The cell contains a liquid mixture of thionyl chloride, lithium tetrachloroaluminate and niobium pentachloride which act as the catholyte, electrolyte, electron sink, and dendrite preventive during reverse voltage condition, electrolyte, respectively. A porous carbon material serves as a cathode current collector which receives electrons from the external circuit. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are generally not sold to the consumer market but find more use in commercial/industrial filed such as meter reading and medical automatic external defibrillators applications. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are well suited to extremely low-current or moderate pulse applications where a service life of up to 40 years is necessary.
Lithium ion(abbreviated as li-ion) battery is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as one electrode material, compared to the metallic lithium used in a non-rechargeable lithium battery. The electrolyte, which allows for ionic movement, and the two electrodes are the constituent components of a lithium-ion battery cell. Li-ion cells (as distinct from entire batteries) are available in various shapes, which can generally be divided into three groups: polymer(pouch, soft, flat body, also referred to as li-ion polymer, lithium polymer or li-po), cylindrical(solid body) and prismatic(semi-hard plastic case with large threaded terminals).
Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across lithium ion battery types. Handheld electronics mostly use lithium ion batteries based on lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 or LCO), which offers high energy density but presents safety risks, especially when damaged. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 or LFP), lithium ion manganese oxide battery (LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, or LMO), and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (LiNiMnCoO2, NMC or NCM) offer lower energy density but longer lives and less likelihood of unfortunate events in real-world use (e.g. fire, explosion, etc.). Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (LiNiCoAlO2 or NCA) and lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12 or LTO) are specialty designs aimed at particular niche roles. The newer lithium–sulfur batteries promise the highest performance-to-weight ratio.
Lithium ion batteries are one of the most popular types of rechargeable batteries for portable electronics, with a high energy density, no memory effect and low self-discharge. They are also growing in popularity for electric vehicle, energy storage and aerospace applications.
Our battery performance test data(3.7V li-po cell):